Help Guides

Cross Linux From Scratch

"Cross Linux From Scratch (CLFS) is a project that provides you with step-by-step instructions for building your own customized Linux system entirely from source.

Why would I want a CLFS system? ¶

Many wonder why they should go through the hassle of building a Linux system from scratch when they could just download an existing Linux distribution. However, there are several benefits of building CLFS. Consider the following:

CLFS teaches people how to build a cross compiler

Building CLFS teaches you how to make a cross-compiler and the necessary tools, to build a basic system on a different architecture. For example you would be able to build a Sparc toolchain on an x86 machine, and utilize that toolchain to build a Linux system from source code.

CLFS teaches people how to utilize a multilib system

CLFS takes advantage of the target system's capability, by utilizing a multilib capable build system.

CLFS teaches people how a Linux system works internally

Building CLFS teaches you about all that makes Linux tick, how things work together and depend on each other. And most importantly, how to customize it to your own tastes and needs.

Building CLFS produces a very compact Linux system

When you install a regular distribution, you often end up installing a lot of programs that you would probably never use. They're just sitting there taking up (precious) disk space.

CLFS can be built from most Unix Style Operating Systems

You can build CLFS even if you don't have Linux running. Our build instructions have been tested to build from Solaris and the BSDs.

CLFS is extremely flexible

Building CLFS could be compared to a finished house. CLFS will give you the skeleton of a house, but it's up to you to install plumbing, electrical outlets, kitchen, bath, wallpaper, etc. You have the ability to turn it into whatever type of system you need it to be, customized completely for you.

CLFS offers you added security

You will compile the entire system from source, thus allowing you to audit everything, if you wish to do so, and apply all the security patches you want or need to apply. You don't have to wait for someone else to provide a new binary package that (hopefully) fixes a security hole. Often, you never truly know whether a security hole is fixed or not unless you do it yourself.

What can I do with my CLFS system? ¶

A by-the-book CLFS system is fairly minimal, but is designed to provide a strong base on which you can add any packages you want. See the CBLFS and BLFS projects for a selection of commonly used packages."

http://trac.cross-lfs.org/

http://cross-lfs.org/files/BOOK/

Comparison of platform virtual machines

"The table below compares basic information about platform virtual machine (VM) packages."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_platform_virtual_...

Knowing Knoppix Open-Content Textbook

"Knowing Knoppix is a guide to the Knoppix Linux distro for the complete beginner

Knoppix is an astoundingly clever product. It runs Linux completely from a CD or DVD. There is no need to install. It bypasses all the software already installed on your PC or laptop and automatically detects the hardware in your computer (subject to suitable hardware). When you've finished using Knoppix, simply restart. Your computer will return to your regular system, and it will behave as if nothing has happened. Knoppix is Free Software and open source under the terms of the GNU General Public Licence (GPL).

This beginner-friendly book is designed to help with these situations:

* You can't start Windows! Disaster? Possibly not. It is often possible to rescue files using Knoppix from crashed Windows computers, even when Windows cannot be started. This guide takes you step by step through the process.
* You are curious about Linux, and you want to discover what all the fuss is about.
* You want a useful guide to help you get started with Knoppix."

http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Knowing_Knoppix

Ubuntu CategoryLive Wiki

"List of pages in CategoryLive

1. BootFromCD
2. BurningIsoHowto
3. IsoBrennen
4. LiveCD
5. LiveCD/FAQ
6. LiveCD/Persistence
7. LiveCdRecovery
8. RecoveringUbuntuAfterInstallingWindows

List of pages with "Live" in the Title

1. CategoryLive
2. How to install Ubuntu on MacBook Air using live CD
3. How to install Ubuntu on MacBook using live CD
4. IndonesianHowToRemasterLiveCD
5. KdenliveSVN
6. LiveCD
7. LiveCD/FAQ
8. LiveCD/Persistence
9. LiveCDCustomization
10. LiveCDCustomization/6.06
11. LiveCDCustomizationFromScratch
12. LiveCDCustomizationHowToBr
13. LiveCDPersistence
14. LiveCd
15. LiveCdFaq
16. LiveCdRecovery
17. MythTV/Download/Dapper/Live
18. MythTV/Download/Edgy/Live
19. MythTV/Download/Feisty/Live
20. MythTV/Install/Live/Backend
21. MythTV/Install/Live/Backend_Frontend
22. MythTV/Install/Live/Base/Backend
23. MythTV/Install/Live/Base/Feisty+/Backend
24. MythTV/Install/Live/Base/Feisty+/Partitioninfo
25. MythTV/Install/Live/Base/Frontend
26. MythTV/Install/Live/Dapper/Repositories
27. MythTV/Install/Live/Edgy/Repositories
28. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/ApplySynaptic
29. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Backend
30. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Backend_Frontend
31. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Config_BE
32. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Config_BE_S
33. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Config_pop_BE
34. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Frontend
35. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Hardware/FE_quicklogin
36. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Hardware/Video_ATI
37. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Hardware/Video_Nvidia
38. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Hardware/Video_Restricted
39. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Mysql_pop_BE
40. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/NTP
41. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/OpenSSH
42. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/Plugins
43. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/WhatNext
44. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/WhatNext_BE
45. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/WhatNext_FE
46. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/WhatNext_S
47. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/XFS
48. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty+/mythfilldatabase
49. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty/Repositories
50. MythTV/Install/Live/Feisty/Update
51. MythTV/Install/Live/Frontend
52. MythTV/Install/Live/Gutsy/Backend_Frontend
53. MythTV/Install/Live/Gutsy/MCC
54. MythTV/Install/Live/NTP
55. MythTV/Install/Live/OpenSSH
56. MythTV/Install/Live/Update
57. MythTV/Install/Live/XFS
58. RemoteConnectionUbuntuLiveCD
59. WindowsLiveMessenger
60. kdenlive"

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/CategoryLive

Ubuntu InstallCDCustomization

"The process of customizing or "remastering" Ubuntu install CDs is not especially complex, but it is a little tedious and finicky. This page documents all the problems you might find; if it doesn't, please edit it!

The Ubuntu install CD (since Ubuntu 6.06, the 'alternative install' or 'server' CD) has three main parts: a boot-loader (ISOLINUX on AMD64/x86 systems, yaboot on PowerPC) and its configuration, which starts everything up; debian-installer (also known as d-i), which in this case is really a specialized miniature Ubuntu system; and a Debian-style repository structure, which is what takes up all that space on the disk in the directories "pool" and "dists". Building a new CD may involve modifications to all three parts."

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/InstallCDCustomization

Ubuntu LiveCDCustomization

"How to Customize the Ubuntu Desktop CD

You may wish to customize the Ubuntu Desktop (live) CD to:

* show off a particular application
* localize to a certain language
* remove software packages
* add software packages
* update software packages
* change system defaults (theme, icons, desktop background, panels, browser homepage, etc)

IconsPage/warning.png This guide is for the Desktop/Live CD"

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/LiveCDCustomization

Debian Pure Blends

"Debian Pure Blends - in short Blends if used clearly in the Debian internal context which makes "Pure" and "Debian" obvious - which were formerly known as Custom Debian Distributions (this name was confusing because it left to much room for speculation that this might be something else than Debian) try to provide a solution for special groups of target users with different skills and interests. Not only do they provide handy collections of specific program packages, but they also ease installation and configuration for the intended purpose.

Debian Pure Blends are not forks from Debian. As the new name says clearly they are pure Debian and just provide a specific flavour. So if you obtain the complete Debian GNU/Linux distribution, you have all available Debian Pure Blends included."

http://cdd.alioth.debian.org/blends/

http://cdd.alioth.debian.org/blends/ch-about.en.html#s-Blends

Debian Live Manual

"The main goal of this manual is to serve as a single access point to all documentation related to the Debian Live project. It does not include end-user documentation for using a Debian Live system."

http://alioth.debian.org/~lamby-guest/live-manual/html/meta....

Softpanorama University Minimalistic Linux Distributions Links

"With the commercialization of Linux increasing rapidly and the divide between Free and pay-for offerings widening, minidistributions reminds us about the "good old days" of Linux distributions.

The number of large full-scale distributions for Linux is too big and they are too bloated and complex to understand. Red Hat is bloated pig that is not that different from Microsoft Windows. It is just incomprehensible and can be used only the way Microsoft Windows is used: installing and periodically patching the distribution. Forget about the fact that it is open source. It just does not matter. I am convinced that Red Hat is harmful for educational purposes because of excessive complexity.

Therefore I decided to keep concentrate on this page on minimalist Linux distributions only. Most material is not current so you need to use it as a starting point for your own search on the net ;-)."

http://www.softpanorama.org/Freenix/minidistributions.shtml

Custom Debian Distributions

"This paper is intended for people who are interested in the philosophy of Custom Debian Distributions, and the technique that is used to manage those projects. It is explained in detail why these are not forks from Debian, but reside completely inside the Debian GNU/Linux distribution, and which advantages can be enjoyed by taking this approach. The concept of meta-packages and user role based menus is explained. In short: This document describes why Custom Debian Distributions are important to the vitality and quality of Debian."

http://people.debian.org/~tille/debian-med/talks/paper-cdd/d...

xwinman Other Desktop Environments

"Here is a list of other desktop environments I've heard about."

http://xwinman.org/otherdesktops.php

xwinman Other Window Managers

"Here is a list of other window managers I've heard about. Some are no longer available, and some are commercial."

http://xwinman.org/others.php

Debian Live Creation Examples

"Examples for generating a Debian Live CDs and others.

This page is really intended to be for command line examples of make-live. This page assumes you have live-helper installed. Remember to execute make-live as root. Many of the basic examples are also in the man pages. As always, please look at the man page to understand more about the listed examples and other options offered."

http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/Examples

Ubuntu LiveCDPersistence

"Live CDs are often used for trying out new software, demos, and other situations where you cannot install the operating system on some random computer's physical hard drives. But sometimes you need or want to install some new software while using your Live CD and not have to reinstall that software every time you reboot the Live CD. A really great feature of the Ubuntu Live CD - persistence, allows you to do just that. You can save your settings from your Live CD environment to some device external to the CD like a USB Stick (or any device the CD can see attached to the computer). Once you have your settings saved to your USB Stick you can then do things like take it with you and boot into your own custom live environment anywhere anytime. Let's try it out."

https://help.ubuntu.com/community/LiveCDPersistence

Fedora Project Live CD Wiki

"This document describe a technical road map for integrating livecd creation into the Fedora release process."

http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/FedoraLiveCD

DebianLive

"This is a collaborative wiki to gather information and to discuss technologies to be used to produce a complex framework to enable production of official Debian Live systems, that uses as much as possible official Debian packages and, for optional hard disk installation, the Debian Installer.

A Debian Live system is a [WWW] Debian operating system preinstalled in some way, that does not require a classical installer to be used. It comes on media, like a cdrom, a usb-stick, or over a network."

http://wiki.debian.org/DebianLive/

Comparison of GNU/Linux LiveDistros

"This page compares LiveDistros based on the GNU/Linux operating system."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_Linux_LiveDistros

Live-Developers.org

"A common resource site and community for LiveDistro developers using the Linux Live shell scripts created by Tomas Matejicek.

"Linux Live is a set of shell scripts which allows you to create your own Live-CD from every Linux distribution. Just install your favorite distro, remove all unnecessary files (for example man pages and all other files which are not important for you) and then download and run these scripts to build your custom Live Linux."

There are a lot of Linux distributions using the scripts, but there is no dedicated website where developers can read guides, exchange ideas and ask questions regarding the shell scripts and LiveDistro development. Live-Developers.org hope to become such a website."

http://live-developers.org/

Damn Small Linux USB Booting

"USB booting can be a hit-or-miss process with DSL or other pendrive-based operating systems."

http://www.damnsmalllinux.org/wiki/index.php/USB_Booting

BootUSB - Boot Linux via USB Pendrives

"This page is about boot Linux via USB pendrives in any computer with or without USB-BIOS capability (in this last case, using a BootFloppy). You can install Linux in your USB pendrive or buy it installed."

http://wiki.debian.org/BootUsb

Linux-Sec.net Linux Distributions

"Operating Systems, "Secure" Linux Distros, *.c Source-Based Distributions, Linux Distributions, Embedded Linux Distros, Floppy-based Distro - Bootable Rescue Disks, Standalone Bootable CDROM, Misc Linux Resources"

http://www.linux-sec.net/Distro/

The Boot Process

Boot sectors, bootable CD-ROMs, examples..

- The Basics
- Boot Sector Documentation
- BIOS and CMOS Register Descriptions
- Industry Specifications
- Examples of Boot Sectors..."

http://www.nondot.org/sabre/os/articles/TheBootProcess/

Assess system security using a Linux LiveCD

"This article talks about about these security-assessment tools and the fastest, easiest way to test your systems using them. [...] Apart from making your system more secure, there are lots of tools you can use to determine your system's ability to withstand any kind of attack. For example:

* Using firewall tools like blockall, you can restrict all inbound TCP traffic; with a tool like floppyfw, you can turn a floppy into a firewall.
* Labrea is a honeypot that can tarpit worms and port scanners, thereby nullifying their effect.
* Then there are a number of intrusion detection systems (IDS) like the very popular Snort and logsnorter.
* Packet Sniffers like ethereal, dsniff, driftnet, urlsnarf, and msgsnarf can help sniff-out useless traffic like IM messages that waste bandwidth.
* Wireless Tools like airsnarf, airsnort, kismet can help you asses the strength of your wireless network.
* The success-rate of tools such as chntpw (which can reset passwords on a Windows box) and pwl9x (which can crack Windows 9x password files), along with allwords2 (a 27-MB English dictionary), will drive home the point of having long, alphanumeric, nonstandard passwords.
* And if you think you have everything covered, try vulnerability assessment tools like hydra, nessus, and nmap. [...]

About LiveCD [...[ Auditor [...] Whoppix [...] Knoppix-STD [...] PHLAK [...] Conclusion [...] Resources"

http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-livecd...

Knoppix.net Remastering Wiki Category

"* Knoppix Remastering Howto
* Knoppix Remastering Howto Deutsch
* Knoppix Remastering Howto French

* Knoppix Remastering Howto Russian
* Knoppix Remastering Howto Spanish
* Knoppix Remastering with Menu Based Scripts

* Remaster From Hd Install HowTo

* Remastering Common Problems
* Remastering Hacks [...]"

http://www.knoppix.net/wiki/Category:Remastering_Knoppix

Some Gentoo LiveCD Related Tips

"Here I'll give some tips for creating small live cds. Big adventage of small size is that it can be copied to memory. You can also put it in small cd (210 MB) which can be in your wallet."

http://gentoo-wiki.com/HOWTO_Some_LiveCD_related_tips

Gentoo Wiki HOWTO build a LiveCD from scratch - Talk Help Page

A helpful Gentoo wiki page discussing particular aspects of building a Gentoo LiveCD from scratch. Some topics include:

"* 1 Install Script
* 2 Genkernel: From scratch?
* 3 Copying read-write image contents to tmpfs
* 4 Invalids script
* 5 Cleaning the build before building
* 6 Init process
* 7 Modules error on boot
* 8 Shut Down
* 9 Chmods
* 10 Last Login:
* 11 Unable to identify cd format
* 12 /new and /newroot?
* 13 /usr/portage
* 14 Writeable /home directories with genkernel and unionfs
* 15 Cleaner, Smaller, Better?
* 16 USB
* 17 Shouldn't the script be . . .?
* 18 The cd gives weird label and does not boot
* 19 Adding docache?"

http://gentoo-wiki.com/Talk:HOWTO_build_a_LiveCD_from_scratch

Martin's GNU/Linux Live CD Comparison Page

"This document is aimed at technically-aware people wanting a superficial look inside various Live CD distributions based on GNU/Linux. It is not a fair and balanced comparison, but simply a collection of my own notes made while I was analysing them to see how the various Live CDs work.

Sadly, several people have thought this document was a "which Live CD should I download" survey, but it's not. It's a technical study on Live CD construction that refers to specific CDs as examples of how things can be done."

http://freaknet.org/martin/dynebolic/livecds.html

Knoppix USB Based FAQ

"What you'll need :

* Knoppix or an already stripped down version with a kernel with cloop-support (i.e. Debian).

If you want to boot Knoppix from USB stick, you must also modify miniroot.gz to include usb-uhci.o, usb-ohci.o and usb-storage.o, otherwise /linuxrc can't mount the stick and find the cloop image.

* bootable USB keydrive.
* Computer with BIOS capable of booting from USB keydrive (select USB-ZIP).
* syslinux or grub for booting."

http://www.knoppix.net/wiki/USB_Based_FAQ

Knoppix Remastering with squashfs

"This is not a howto; there are so many good knoppix remastering howto around, so I only discuss the main points with enough details so anyone could switch from cloop-to-squashfs remastering."

http://www.knoppix.net/forum/viewtopic.php?t=11649&postdays=...

Ibuild Howto Wiki

"Ibuild is a set of scripts that aim to help Morphix and Knoppix remasterers do their job by efficiently producing modified remasters. They are not limited to Morphix and Knoppix, and are currently available and tested on Debian GNU/Linux (testing and unstable)."

http://wiki.livecd.net/livecd/IbuildHowto

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